X-rays are relatively high-energy photons creating an electromagnetic radiation of extremely short wavelengths (100 nanometres to 0.001 nanometre). They are also known as roentgen rays.

X-rays are a type of radiation used in imaging and therapy that use short wavelength energy beams capable of penetrating most substances except heavy metals.

X-rays are produced by the deceleration of charged particles or the transitions of electrons in atoms. Generally, when fast-moving electrons slam into a metal object, x-rays are created. The kinetic energy of the electron is transformed into electromagnetic energy.

X-rays exhibit phenomena associated with waves, and can also behave like particles. On the electromagnetic spectrum, they lie between gamma rays and ultraviolet radiation. They were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, who named them X-rays for their unknown nature.

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